Epistemology – “Means a system of knowledge that references within it the social relations of knowledge production. It is different from Ontology, in that ontology is concerned with the nature of being and reality.”
Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Epistemology: “Epistemology is the study of the nature of thinking or knowing. It involves the theory of how we come to have knowledge, or how we know that we know something. It includes entire systems of thinking or styles of cognitive functioning that are built upon specific ontologies. Epistemology is tied in to ontology, in that what I believe to be “real” is going to impact on the way that I think about that “reality.” Choices are made about what is “real” will depend upon how your thinking works and how you know the world around you. Epistemology is thus asking, “How do I know what is real?”
Wilson, S. (2008). Research is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methods. Black Point, N.S., Fernwood Pub.